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Wednesday, January 13, 2016

Tuberculosis, Focuses, Complexes

1. Ghon focus(subpleural)
2. Ranke focus(ghon focus+enlarged/calcified lymphnode).
3. Puhls focus-apex
4. Assman focus- Deep apical
5. Simon focus-Subpleural focus in upper lobe
6. Aschoff-puhl focus-coarse granular dissemination.
7. Rich's focus- brain(cortex).
8. Simmond's focus-liver.
9. Wigard's focus-blood vessel(intima).

Ghon focus is a primary lesion usually subpleural, often in the mid to lower zones, caused by mycobacterium bacilli (tuberculosis) developed in the lung of a nonimmune host (usually a child). It is named for Anton Ghon (1866–1936), an Austrian pathologist.
It is a small area of granulomatous inflammation, only detectable by [chest X-ray] if it calcifies or grows substantially (seetuberculosis radiology).Typically these will heal, but in some cases, especially in immunosuppressed patients, it will progress to miliary tuberculosis (so named due to thegranulomas resembling millet seeds on a chest X-ray). 
The classical location for primary infection is surrounding the lobar fissures, either in the upper part of the lower lobe or lower part of the upper lobe.
If the Ghon focus also involves infection of adjacent lymphatics and hilar lymph nodes, it is known as the Ghon's complex or primary complex. When a Ghon's complex undergoes fibrosis and calcification it is called a Ranke complex. 
Simon focus is a tuberculosis (TB) nodule that can form in the apex of the lung when a primary TB infection elsewhere in the body spreads to the lung apex via the bloodstream. Simon focus nodules are often calcified.
The initial lesion is usually a small focus of consolidation, less than 2cm in diameter and located within 1 to 2 cm of the apical pleura.In adolescence, Simon foci may become reactivated and develop into Assmann foci. Such foci are sharply circumscribed, firm, gray-white to yellow areas that have a variable amount of central caseation and peripheral fibrosis.
Rich focus is a tuberculousgranuloma occurring on the cortex of the brain that ruptures into the subarachnoid space, causing tuberculous meningitis.It is named for Arnold Rice Rich who first described it.
Primary TB
1. Ghon focus(subpleural)
2. Ranke focus(ghon focus+enlarged/calcified lymphnode).
3.Puhls focus-apex
1. Assman focus- Deep apical
2. Simon focus-Subpleural focus in upper lobe
3. Aschoff-puhl focus-coarse granular dissemination.
4. Rich's focus- brain(cortex).
5. Simmond's focus-liver.
6. Wigard's focus-blood vessel(intima).

Secondary TB

Puhls focus: cerebellar focus
Weigerts focus: sub initimal focus

Simond focus: Liver focus
Collected from wikipedia and internet. 
Just collected. Copied and pasted.